The IDF operates an internal judicial system, separate from the State of Israel's general judicial system. Its legislative basis is the Military Justice Law, which was promulgated by the Knesset in 1955. This law established amongst other things, specific provisions concerning the structure, jurisdiction and procedure of the military courts and also organized the activities of investigating institutions leading up to trial.
Furthermore, the Military Justice Law codifies an array of military offenses that fall within the scope of the military court's jurisdiction, in addition to general criminal offenses recognized by the State of Israel. The principal consideration in favor of the existence of a separate legal system in the IDF relates to the army's unique nature, embracing specific values, such as camaraderie and military discipline.
Due to the army's unique nature, military judges are required to have formerly served in the IDF, as they will be called upon to decide upon specific issues that are raised within its framework and that are related to its operations and special norms of behavior.
An additional reason for the existence of a separate military legal system is the degree of efficiency acquired. Whilst not impeding any rights of the accused soldier, the military system is accelerated and more suitable than the civilian system in managing proceedings against service members standing trial. The system's efficiency is far more imperative than that of the public's, as a disciplined and efficient military is certainly a requirement in times of conflict and emergency.